At 3scale we’re often asked, “Which Web architecture will win? HTML5 or App+API?” And our answer is generally, “Both, they are converging.” A great recent post by Zendesk’s Alexander Aghassipour and Shajith Chacko on Single page apps illustrates a big piece of how this is happening.
While there are still issues with how history is handled (much improved in HTML5) and SEO that mean the approach might not be a good fit for content heavy sites, expect a big shift towards this type of architecture especially for SAAS Web Apps where it provides a genuine jump forward in usability.
As well as being an evolution in Web design however, this shift also signals a much wider trend in in the Web as a whole — a separation of the functional layer as an API and the presentation layer in the form of the App (HTML5 or native):
- The Single Page + API Model is much more flexible than a HTML heavy page based application since the underlying API can be used to power a multitude of different front ends for different contexts, form factors and device types. Once the API is in-place, it can often be used to serve multiple audience with different needs (e.g. channel partners v’s end users).
- The model also means that native web apps get much closer in feel to mobile and desktop applications – helping users get a similar user experience whatever platform they are on. Mobile Backend as a Service platforms such as Stackmob, Parse, Appcelerator, Kinvey, and Kii are also helping this convergence by standardising some elements of the backend API and providing cross-platform user experiences that resemble single page models.
- Protocols like openAuth (oAuth) are becoming widely adopted as the gold standard for user authorization and provide a common pattern which separates login/authorization issues out from the application and content. For the first time this means that user identity can be cleanly separated from content, functionality and user-experience.
Single Page Apps arguably represent the final step in the unbundling of Web technology — which started by separating out formatting from content (CSS), progressed to flexibility in structure (XML and XSLT), moved to disconnecting the page model from server calls (AJAX) and now unbundles the page structure from application navigation. This is a profound change in the way the Web works.
So again, when we’re asked, “HTML5 of App+API?”, we say “Both” — the two worlds are converging faster than ever before and Single Page Apps are a big piece of the puzzle. It also seems likely that as issues with navigation, history, and SEO impacts are resolved Single Page Apps might also start appearing for content heavy sites — leading to an “App-ification” of even more of the Web.
[Zendesk's original post gives an intro as to why Single Page Apps might be worth considering for your App, and there’s a great comparison of some of the leading frameworks on Steve Andersons’s Blog.]
[Illustration by Hallie Bateman]